most Azerbaijanis in Iran referred to themselves as Turks. .. 12 Zehtabi, Iran Turklerinin Eski Tarixi; Heyat, “Regression of Azeri Language.” 13 E.M. 3 M.T. Zehtabi, Iran Turklerinin Eski Tarixi. Ikinci chap (Tebriz: Artun, ). 4 Rahim Rayees-Nia, Azerbaijan dar Seir-e Tarikh-e Iran, 2 vols. (Tabriz: Nima. compared with more than 20 million Azeris in Iran. The two from northwestern Iran to the Caspian Sea in the east M.T. Zehtabi, Iran Turklerinin Eski Tarixi.

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As its first important task on the day of inauguration, the National Assembly proclaimed the autonomous Republic of Azerbaijan and designated a government under the premiership of Mir Jafar Turklrrinin, the founder of Azerbaijan Democratic Party. The world renowned North Azerbaijani poet, Semed Vurghun, recited a poem in World Peace Congress held in Paris, by way of a protest against massacre of Azerbaijani people.

The totalitarian and dictatorial regimes in Europe as well as in various parts of Asia, Africa and the Middle East had to remobilize their forces and focus their txrixi to the external threat posed by the war. The rapid deterioration in socio-political sphere, coupled with the destructive impact of 8-year Iran-Iraq war, came to play a major role in determining the nature of future struggle.

I believe that only an anti-colonial discursive framework is capable of effectively enabling one ezki critique and disrupt the racist and hegemonic relationships such as the one existing in current Iran. They were not encouraged to be proud of who they were, because according to the dominant ideology, their heritage and culture were nothing ifan be proud of! The officially fabricated Iranian history was rapidly replacing the existing oral and written histories of various ethnic groups.

Qavam had made it clear that turklerniin elections would not be held unless the government was in a position to supervise them all over the country, including Azerbaijan. I learned from my travels in Azerbaijan in that Pishevari was an astute politician who forged a program for Azerbaijan that is still enormously popular Considering the fact that the majority of Azerbaijani feudal lords had already run away from Azerbaijan in the process of the democratic movement, this distribution amounted to a significant portion of agrarian land see also Mehrban, ; Atabaki, What are those gallows?

Although the ADP leaders played an essential role in sski formation of Azerbaijan Democratic Republic, they nevertheless failed to do their duties as leaders of a revolutionary movement. Pishevari’s program was so popular–especially land reform, sever punishment of public officials who took bribes, and price control–that if there had been a free election in Azerbaijan during the summer ofPishevari would turkkerinin been restored to power by the vote of 90 per cent of the people.

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Institution Press, Standford University: Based on their mutual agreement, the allied forces were to leave Iran by March 2, The oil concession did not only mean a lion’s share of Iran’s oil for Russia, more importantly, it meant the security of Soviet borders in Iranian northern turklernin, particularly in tuurklerinin rivalry with the British and the newly arrived Americans.

The Multiple Identities of Azerbaijan

As a major step in eliminating feudal oppression, it started a land distribution program all over the Republic. Now the farmer’s share rose from about 20 per cent in the old system to more than 43 per cent see also Atabaki, P. It left a brutal mark on the people. The racist Pahlavi regime had sought to enforce a Persian nationalistic ideology in line with fascistic Nazi German philosophy. And all this because the leaders of ADP had chosen the Soviets’ trade and security considerations over the independence and autonomy of their own people and their own Republic!

The new regime brutally suppressed the legitimate idan of various nationalities for self-determination, placing even a greater emphasis on Persian racism as a determining factor in maintaining its power bases.

While sending tuklerinin to the Azerbaijan parliament, the Kurds maintained their distinct identity and insisted on the independence of the Kurdish Republic. More than this, in respect to issues concerning human rights, particularly women’s rights and freedom, the situation even worsened and kept deteriorating.

The achievements, experiences, and failures of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic have become a source of learning and understanding that provide invaluable lessons for a fresh start. In the meantime, the British, now working hand in hand rski Qavam, had engineered another scenario in the south. However, there is no viable information available regarding the group at the present.

The people of Azerbaijan, along with other oppressed nationalities and groups, joined in the struggle against the absolute monarchic regime and eventually managed to bring it down through the popular revolution. William Douglas, an American Jurist, who had chanced to be traveling in Azerbaijan shortly after the democratic movement, itan summarized his observations thus: Iran in the Twentieth Century.

Nor did come into existence any democratic rule and institution. Soon, pamphlets and magazines began to circulate in Azeri language, accompanied by hitherto forbidden folkloric songs, dances, literary gatherings, wearing of indigenous clothing, and so forth.


When the people’s revolutionary sentiment had reached its climax, the ADP turkleronin worked as mediators to calm the people down. Adabiyyat va Incasanat Literature and Fine Arts. Alireza Asgharzadeh The rise of European fascism and the concomitant breakout of what came to be known as the Second World War changed the balance of forces all over the globe.

Long before I was born, an Azeri poet, Bulut Qarachorlu, had vividly depicted my location and my background: Considering the fact that about 75 per cent of the people in Azerbaijan were farmers at the time Kazemi, The ADP leaders are blamed for the defeat of the movement in that they failed to Iranize the democratic iean by focusing on Azerbaijan alone.

A big texture company named Zefer was established. Achievements of the Movement The Azerbaijan Democratic Government quickly proceeded to carry out its plans. Under the Democratic government, all the banks in Tabriz were uran, holding more than 3, tomans at the time see also Lenczowski, P. The Persian Army–the army of emancipation–was eskk savage army of occupation.

Turk Dili ve Edebiyati Dergisi. Simultaneously with the Azerbaijani movement, a Kurdish movement took place in the province of Kurdistan, west of Azerbaijan. In May the Soviet forces left Iran. From the very beginning I tried to be a part of that struggle, a part of that movement for broader social justice and restoration of human dignity.

Furthermore, a commission formed from representatives of Ministries of Trade, Economics, and Finance was called upon to establish trade connections with foreign governments.

The change that ADP leaders introduced was conservative and reformist, not revolutionary and sovereigntist, as the people would have wanted. A radio station was established.

The Multiple Identities of Azerbaijan | Arastirmax – Scientific Publication Index

Forbidden To dream of my future: They made it clear that if the government did not destroy the autonomous republics, the Qashqayis would capture more towns and would constitute their own republic! The nationalistic and turkllerinin demands of Azerbaijani people were legitimate demands rooted in their culture and history.

Members of various non-Persian nationalities living in Iran had either to subscribe to a supposedly common Aryan ancestry, or else be humiliated, marginalized and suffer numerous punishments.

In his famous poem, Kamran Mehdi has captured the feelings of Azerbaijanis regarding the forced separation: