ECOLOGY EPIDEMIOLOGY AND EVOLUTION OF PARASITISM IN DAPHNIA PDF

1 Introduction to the Ecology, Epidemiology, and Evolution of Parasitism in Daphnia. This chapter provides a short introduction to the topic of the book. I define. 7 Host Range of Daphnia Parasites. In this chapter, I summarize what we know about parasite host ranges and host specificity. I outline the ecological. 5 The Effects of Daphnia Parasites on Host Fitness. Parasites use their hosts to foster their own needs, thus interfering with the hosts’ survival and reproduction.

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Clear Turn Off Turn On. In asexual species, this definition cannot be applied; in this case, a population is a group of phenotypically matching individuals living in the same area.

Defense reaction of prey triggered by the presence or action of a predator so as to reduce the expected damage of the predator. Microparasites are characterized by small size ecologh short generation times.

The next chapters describe the interactions between parasites and their Daphnia hosts.

Ecology, Epidemiology, and Evolution of Parasitism in Daphnia – NCBI Bookshelf

This effect cannot be explained by the temperature dependence of metabolic rates. Some parasites show specialized modes of action, such as castration or the induction of enhanced body growth. See Diel vertical migration. Although my original plan was to keep the framework of this book similar to Green’s paper, I soon realized that this was not possible because too much new material is available. dapgnia

Macroparasites are typically parasitic helminths and arthropods. Very high doses may even harm the host so much that the parasite is not able to complete its development before the host dies Ebert et al. On daphniz other hand, it has been suggested that under certain conditions, high loads of algal epibionts may provide additional food for the host and thus result in a net benefit Barea-Arco et al. Paraeitism transmission is transmission by direct contact between infected and susceptible individuals or between disease vectors and susceptible individuals.

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Ecology, epidemiology, and evolution of parasitism in Daphnia by Dieter Ebert

Historically this meant, however, that parasites, and in particular microparasites Microparasite: Experiments are suggested at the individual level as well as at the population level. The finding of parasite local adaptation Local adaptation: Trans Zool Soc Lond They have a bivalve shell covering the body but not the head, four to six pairs of legs, and two pairs of antennae used for swimming.

Local adaptation is best demonstrated by showing that immigrant genotypes are inferior to resident genotypes. Degree to which members of a population differ at certain loci.

Changes in allele frequencies over time. Limno Oceanogr Nevertheless, the host range can be, at least locally, a useful tool for identifying certain parasite species and can sometimes even help identify host species by the presence of their specialist parasites.

Predatory fish, phantom midge larvae, and water boatmen were among the key culprits and received a lot of attention, in particular after predator-induced defenses Predator-induced defense: Chapter 7 is on host ranges and discusses what we know about the specificity of Daphnia parasites. It has been speculated that this specific pathology is adaptive for P. Laboratory experiments can best elucidate the host range of parasites with well-defined transmission Transmission: In contrast to the food study in D.

Within populations, different clones of D. Ectoparasites live on the surface of the host. The interaction between parasitic infections and the feeding conditions for the host has not yet been generally determined.

In the context of this book, equivalent to parasite. Host specificity is very important for both ecological and evolutionary aspects of host—parasite interactions.

The growing awareness that parasites are ubiquitous and may play an important role in most natural ecosystems has changed this, as the increasing number of publications about Daphnia parasites and epibionts confirms Figure 1. Chapter 9 introduces the important question of whether parasites regulate their host populations or even drive them to extinction. They mostly inhabit evilution water.

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Ecology, Epidemiology, and Evolution of Parasitism in Daphnia

Across the entire range of evolutoin effects, most tested parasites reduced both host fecundity and survival to a similar degree. Trends Microbiol More specifically, it is the fitness component of the parasite that is associated with the harm done to the host. Phenotypic variation expressed by a single genotype in different environments.

Reduction in host susceptibility to infection. Arch Hydrobiol Within populations, the infectivity of P. In zooplankton, epibionts are often ciliates, algae, bacteria, and fungi. From Chapter 4 Parasitism in Natural Populations onward, I end each chapter by posing open questions and highlighting major gaps in our knowledge.

Are epidemics in zooplankton under top-down control?. Early castration results in more parasite transmission Transmission: Clonal selection is found when clones differ in their lifetime reproductive success and is usually seen in the form of genotype frequency changes. This form of parasite-induced host gigantism Gigantism: A slightly different approach was used by Bengtsson and Ebert Bengtsson J, Ebert D Distribution and impacts of microparasites on Daphnia in a rockpool metapopulation. Vertical transmission occurs when a parent conveys an infection to its unborn offspring, as in HIV in humans.

These simple experiments may be used to illustrate principles of host—parasite interactions. However, this is not to say that epibionts Epibiont: J Anim Ecol Process by which certain phenotypes are favored over other phenotypes.

Migration among subpopulations is important for the ecological and evolutionary dynamics of a metapopulation. I devote an entire chapter to discussing the fitness Fitness: