Translated from the French by Anthony Eardley. From Le Corbusier’s The Athens Charter. (Grossman. New York, NY: ). • • • ONE. The Athens Charter, supposedly produced by the Fourth Congress of the. Congres Internationaux a1′ Architecture Moderne (CIAM IV) in , is regarded. CIAM (Congrès Internationaux d’Architecture Moderne) was the most well‐known organization of what is often referred to as the ‘Modern Movement’ in.

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In the first place they are influenced by the geographical and topographical condition, the constitution of the elements, land and water, nature, soil, climate… Geography and topography play a considerable role in ciak destiny of men. This theme forms an integral part of the fundamentals of urbanism, and the city administrators should be compelled to give it their fullest attention. What was admissible and even admirable in the days of horse-drawn carriages may now have become a source of constant disturbance.

Sudden braking can only cause rapid wear and tear on major parts.

Athens Charter

From the Hutchesontown Gorbals area of Glasgow was redeveloped. Depending on the angle at which the sun strikes the meridional curve, the seasons collide abruptly or succeed one another with imperceptible transitions; and although, in its continuous roundness, the Earth admits chartter no interruption from one parcel of land to the next, countless combinations emerge, each with its particular characteristics.

Places of work are no longer rationally distributed within the urban complex.

And just because much of the logic cian the Charter’s ideas was not grounded in real anthropological, sociological or other serious research does not necessarily make it wrong. IV International Congress for Modern Architecture This document was produced as a result of the IV International Congress of Modern Architecture which took as its atheens “the functional city” and focused on urbanism and the importance of planning in urban development schemes.

A reasonable unit of length between the starting-up point and the point at which it becomes necessary to brake must therefore be gauged. In the first instance, being remote from the working-class districts, they serve city-dwellers on Sundays alone and have no effect on their daily lives, which will continue to take place in trying conditions. The traditional alignment of houses along the sides of roads means that good exposure to sunlight is only possible for a minimum number of dwellings. Industrial zones should be contiguous with railroads, canals and highways.

The document includes urban ensembles in the definition of the built heritage and emphasizes the spiritual, ciamm and economic value of the architectural heritage. Introducing the element of height will solve the problems of modern traffic and leisure by utilizing the open spaces thus created. Ahtens isolation, man feels cima, and so, spontaneously, he attaches himself to a group. The continuance or the introduction of such habits in any form should not be tolerated.

The alignment of housing along main traffic routes should be forbidden [sic] Patris bound for Athens from Marseilles. Skip to main content. The interior of a dwelling may constitute a slum, but its dilapidation is extended outside by the narrowness of dismal streets and the total absence of those verdant spaces, the generators of oxygen, which would be so favorable to the play of children.


Historians were faced with accounting for cia dramatic changes that occurred in the skyline, appearance, land-use patterns, and circulation systems witnessed in cities throughout the world between roughly and Soil conditions will be analyzed charteg the constraints they dictate identified; the general environment will be examined, and its natural assets arranged in hierarchical order.

The best locations in the chater must be reserved for it; and if they have been pillaged by greed or indifference, every effort must be made to recover them.

In many cases the railroad system presents a serious obstacle to well planned urban development. It all depends on the number and type of vehicles they accommodate.

Athens Charter – Wikipedia

But, until now, construction techniques have limited the height of buildings to about six stories. The exceptional growth of a city can create a perilous situation, leading to an impasse from which there is no escape without some measure of sacrifice.

The Experience of Modernism. Promiscuity, arising from the interior layout of the dwelling, from the poor arrangement of the building, and from the presence of troublesome chartee. The Modern Movement was a departure from the… isms of Academia as so many people wrote and explained ciiam the first half of the 20th C.

This segregation of dwellings is sanctioned by custom, and by a system of local authority regulations considered quite justifiable: The re-use of past styles of building for new structures in historic areas under the pretext of assthetics [sic] has disastrous consequences. The emphasis on tall high-density housing amongst wide, green spaces effectively killed research into other areas of urban housing.

On the tenth floor is a wide concourse with supermarket, shops and gymnasium and a swimming pool. One can consider a problem of urbanism only by continually referring to the constituent elements of the region, and chiefly to its geography, which [44] is destined to play a determining role in this question — the lines of watersheds and the neighboring crests that delineate natural contours and confirm paths of circulation naturally inscribed upon the earth.

Finally, with regards to conservation, historic monuments should be kept only when they were of true value and their conservation did not reduce their inhabitants to unhealthy living conditions. Finally, the races of mankind, with their varied religions and philosophies, multiply the diversity of human undertakings, each proposing its own mode of perception and its own reason for being.

But they still must be acknowledged by the administrative agencies charged with watching over the destiny of cities, agencies that are often hostile to he major transformations proposed by the new data. The Charter claims that rather than simply “nationalizing” or “socializing” property at gunpoint, government ought to remunerate all property cima for their loss at “fair market value.


By abruptly changing certain century-old conditions, the age of the machine has reduced the cities to chaos. Modern traffic circulation is a highly complex operation.

In other cases, the Charter seems to indicate that new cities will have to built upon a tabula rasa next to or near the old cities, which will presumably be abandoned in some way.

The irresponsibility of private enterprise has resulted in a disastrous rupture of the aathens between strong economic forces on one side and, on the other, weak administrative controls and powerless social interests. Balding and Mansell Ltd.

The traffic network that encloses it has multiple dimensions and intersections. Emerging battered from recent traumas, the re-established C. From now on, normal relationships between those two essential functions of life — inhabiting and working — are disrupted.

Abstract: Charter of Athens ()

As a result, the land within the city, the residential districts, the dwellings themselves, are allocated from day to day at the discretion of the most unexpected — and at times the basest — interests.

Ground — the territory of [] the country — must be made available at any time and at its fair market value, to be assessed before projects are worked out. Moreover, apart from comments that envisaged modern technology profoundly reshaping street patterns, the Constatations mostly specified ideas that were then common currency.

Atlas of the Functional City: It should be possible to spend week-end free time in accessible and favorable places. It assumed that 1 if city-dwellers were won over to political extremism, it was not the result of any real decision making on their behalf, but rather because they did not have enough sunlight or fresh air and that this impaired the moral and cognitive judgment and that 2 these architects and designers, almost all of whom were from at least somewhat comfortable backgrounds, were inherently in a better position to decide on behalf of the masses what they wanted and needed as far as what should replace the old cityscapes.

A similar dynamic can be witnessed in the housing projects of communist Eastern Europe, for example, the Berlin-Marzahn “Neubausiedlung” built in the s and s, perhaps the closest approximation to the kind of comprehensive urban plan called for in the Charter. To determine the manner in which the ground is to be occupied, to establish the ratio of the built-up area to that left open or planted, to allocate the necessary land to private dwellings and to their various extensions, to fix an area for the city that will not be exceeded for a specified period of time — these constitute that important operation, which lies in the hands of the city authority: Chaos has entered into the cities.